This left the African people with the idea that God could not handle the hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis. IN YORUBA TRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS THOUGHT E. Dada Adelowo* Introduction This paper' is moti~ated by' the need. ;d�'e$I X=��2.��s�4������FEE�,�a�O��Px�_D"��{�FĤLV��p��Ȭ�0||�m�J�>Xg#�Z�0U{7k�� �D����+ApldJZpj���b�yj̓~��r� l�K��n�w�z�f�z�n�!�31���~N�^�>���@�I8O]�ɺw#H��_�U�z� r/��ڂVȤ��/$HQ�5�x{�ٶ��|�GÅ�l����b�DG8�"��M��N�2��b�>����p?�EnT��O [͆�D�@�dçIS(P���]�y`�؇nӐe��]���y:f�jG��Z3�y�EԵ���AVOI� ���QF�Yߛ- Traditional African religion is a way of life in which ancestors are part of every major event such as wedding, births and deaths as well as less important ones such as getting a job and finishing university. However, it is important to acknowledge that there is no uniform African traditional belief in the spirit world as Salala rightly points out (ibid., 134). Traditional African approaches in the light of natural values, and of modern secular attitude If we are going to speak of traditional African concepts and customs regarding marriage and the family, a few clarifications are called for. The ceremonies bind and form religious values which govern the family and society. G�|�a�[q��i�`Ya�����S����uߡ���/�j�ur��ړS�l��̓���>���:=��dn�����f��sɇ�"GB~%'\����I���k����\��ӗ�d-�0ի=N�U�KY�R>�.\_��]�l7���Bfi'�IF�?���zqJ������\IµÆn ��CP]̌i��8:��L�{�����W�Y�xg]Ը���sjl�L��Ŋ��Wo>�-��'n�3��~�{Y�/ 3�;�N�S�v�؏ ��!�˲�qk��N0�����哜Ww��=��w�h���+�t��Pz�P��w�i`�����} n�O[��)�zi+Q�ΐ;��htu�N6���7C?�*Ch�Hj��b��u6�����/���7hv�f-�0z���5 ���u� The best interpreter of African Religion is the African with a disciplined mind and the requisite technical tools. x��]ٓ&Gq�Ԏ6�+iWB�,bF�4]U}Tcl�p���! For instance, the Yoruba religion has historically been centered in southwestern Nigeria, the Zulu religion in southern Africa, and the Igbo religion in southeastern Nigeria. traditional Shona religion, I am referring to a particular strand of Shona religiosity widely known as the Mwari religion. A lot of leaders have emerged from the African religion. 2 0 obj ;�;m��έ�]����mB��"�D��T�S���U���D��[�뻨j�*�3l�� �D{��k���7��@tB����0�cg]�������Er�+�e��)džs�k��f6cƃRU�iu��,Wdm�lA���ִ��#���OLs8�1��/‰��#����q��s� �v(a���6�l�A�`O/H�vX��*���3��S����О�ME_�q����v�&oM����m?�{���{��ў��nˠ� ter Haar et al. �æe� Là��\y�]�ھW�4��Yɨ��gՃ stream 1�x�xp���~�I�٣7�m#M�Wj��xA���qN���,PT2���^��]��R�ϸ�6ക�C3����Y۪�'�K�~Bw��v������4-x������ꚦ�wE@�;5 Nevertheless, the African traditional religion has played a remarkable role in sustaining such values but with serious challenges. Religion and culture as powerful institutions within society play a major role in shaping gender roles and perpetuating gender inequality and are powerful institutions within society. African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religion of the African people. �|�,utǡ��v��2Q��d�jrq�f��M7PC�)2����-|�O���7,�0�[�i=�_�a/�O�m��"Ɗ����X`��Yꟿ��2��FpX�Bj�s�FxCq�DdÐ���`��%��*Ȱ��g,-J1��eطа��*��ۃj�j�q,tm{w������>q��A�sA��qN$��D� ���)IM� ����u�Um�$%��`��Y�.� ��e��K�G�!aD�zIY@�ߝZ0�.�c�`K�ᣅ�����Z}@C��w2��Q�G����(a��{��(�[L �W�*N�rD�B�a);�S�����~Fi������ �,��ܒ��I4���:+;WFK���%�>C�9q+B`�HX��⇯acp��[:Z|.�߇{���-��=��Lk�I��;�Ys���x�%M��q���UX���j&n� S! For a more detailed treatment of this subject of God in Africa, see Mbiti 1982 and 1992. ���u�fF'dX�eA^Ƥl4ӛa*�0(��1��l� �HLt�A�@a�2�O�>�b�O����k���)x��6*. ��/� DI�41���@ ���tD�}r�;ں�Y ���w�,XV��z����wi��A�1JtЊvr�lf������F�aD7E���@άs���� 0��0�=�ᰆ���L��"�q�{VΝ��f\}io�K�y=�lXS.P������6ChXێ m�%� ~�nUƫ�V��)=v�p%F��B�vy����}�+6,�0+V8sG����&>K�_��i�ͯ���B��O���ntQ�v�y�C��N��ž�[ׄ�I�ձ�'u�v�R����;�}�h��A/D|أ+ӮI�9Ҋ�����Q$c��L,��� <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> ,{r��"b�+38XMV:� V߭aUA׌����Μ�DNPt���CM�:��:Y��+/�Ym� y��>��3�� Some took part as freedom fighters and gained recognition as heroines. x��][o�H�~���Gr��oA ��$9�,f���� K��3����d~�VU_ؼ�%� ��f�YU]��ե���q{�Z?Foޜ�?>��w�&���j�/��ϫ��n�����>>]?b��5�M�.�����_����ՌGYT�ϲ�Qۼ|��_���W/_��c\��y��A�,bQ�ӌ�Q)����x���n0ZtK�*������Q���Ǘ/��X�b���)z��et�a�b��������~�x2�e*�⒘�����w��1Y��m��2n�}{%2��K���t�[�n�Q�ƾ,^'�놇D��^}��WI�_����:�'y��m;eu�p���ح|��5�>)㛄����$c�4"y"�ΓE_C/�� Rosalind J. Hackett as a guest-editor has been responsible for those pages. The first is that the context of this article is sub-Sahara Africa. However, Culture is part of the African indigenous Religion. Indigenous African religions are by nature plural, varied, and usually informed by one’s ethnic identity i.e. African Traditional Religion: A Definition (1973), Omosade Awolalu in Yoruba Belief and Sacrificial Rites and John Mbiti in The Concept of God in Africa (1970) are a few examples of postcolonial scholars of religion who have resisted and denounced colonial idea that Africans do not know God. The Cosmos Traditional Africans believe that the cosmos was created by a Supreme Being, God. The traditional spiritual beliefs of the Chewa people of Zambia, … differs in African countries was mentioned. African Traditional Religion (ATR) or African Religion in this paper gave meaning and a sense of purpose to all aspects of thought and action (cf. &R�c��Ԣ���I��X�6�Wa). Mambo Hills is northeast of Bulawayo. 1. RELIGION is a fundamental, perhaps the most important, influence in the life of most Africans; yet its essential principles are too often unknown to foreigners who thus make themselves constantly liable to misunderstand the African worldview and beliefs. And we agree with Professor Idowu that the purpose of the study should be: Here again the writer made mention of the various ceremonies which accompany puberty and its significance in African traditional religion. ��M�!�e�J/��"�0�����Nq�"3�_aÇd!+�;���\4C��2-�Ɍ0"+��5�qu�|R�w�!9Kk�C~��V3Mڊ�$��� ߈�2d yF�T�!Jf"e��z��:~ �U� S� d����E�{�hba��E�RVT�Ge�qBz�k���2^�����һo�P)R�}�7ꙌQv���#.��dQש�F4^%y�+X��-�o��"�w�r�ߴ�+l�+����B�?�{l��b�=��"�a������k�K;q�urpD�B� ~O�`������ Hn��5~:D�]�x�D�ɦS-�V������3t�V������g��P`Ax�x���8M���i퉛2�.��O4ۭ�g5ٯ=̹t�拏�̴�� ���D˪T�W��?���n�e![���Cc?�"C���+E|�o�&��K����s0�`�7_BiXHyͦİJ8��;B>7��ӦAfv��u���P�T��ZV(���ݏ3JW|/+��Ywy"�E��tB�E�V�YlN�Fľcڮ��[5��%X�8�@��o��|^ힾ�D�HႧ���D\���*=�z.�)��P������??6`����! the like.” African traditional spirituality as an African heritage must be taken seriously for a fuller understanding of African Christian spirituality, particularly of the African Pentecostal churches. Topic: The Impact of African Traditional Religious Beliefs and Cultural Values on Christian-Muslim Relations in Ghana from 1920 through the Present: A Case Study of Nkusukum-Ekumfi-Enyan traditional area of the Central Region. <> KEY WORDS: pregnancy, birth rites, naming rites, puberty rites, ritual 5 0 obj 9�2��#�Lf�R�sNwԬ��vҬ�0;aD�a��(��-{�pSkD�:w9t�!�M1̀ s��)�Ű!�!�O��J�a��"���0Ɯ�p>�)����a&L��DA�L�� =H�eP+g �T���m��0Δ�`-���`X+Z�&E0"Vo�I��Ma�T���fs'��gr�j�i� K�]/>�Ĭ��W�`Kȕ�{�䊨�4{��:�}���* %PDF-1.5 In another chapter, puberty rites were mentioned as another rites of passage. He tried to demonstrate the applicability of the phenomenological method in the study of African Traditional Religion. In spite of thephilosophical inquiries or analyses undertaken by individualmoralphilosophers regarding morality … This paper therefore, aims at exploring the role of the traditional religion in sustaining African values, human relations in particular in spite of the challenges of globalization. endobj on account of the persistent marginalisation of African Traditional Religion (ATR) in Sierra Leone by Islam and Christianity, to investigate the place of ATR in inter-religious encounters in the country since the advent of Islam and Christianity. African culture has experienced rapid change since the colonial invasion. where one’s family came from. For many Africans and Ghanaians, in particular, it is religion more than anything else that shapes their worldview and participation in social life6. ... 2 E. B. Idowu, African Traditional Religion, S.C.M., 1973, p.87. �_�v�`CE�]11m��Y�*��u\����M�ᥟ����Oyr&j忯Wh-�9��^ə�e29�b�&5�V�.��$�: z���0�w��EF'w��e��{���A��f\�^�#�v��U��?�g�)_c�x}����4�N��^�[��o��� (1992) came very close into the substance of this paper when they came up with a book entitled African Traditional Religion in Religious Education: A Resource Book with Special Reference to Zimbabwe. The Mwali hilltop cult and shrines is discussed in the 2008 book Mambo Hills: Historical and Religious Significance by Marieke Clarke . This belief, just as in the case of the previous one, has a theological basis – the plurality of divinities ( polytheism ). Contemporary African culture is a mixture of traditional elements and alien features. ?a ��p ?��wUu�U���of�y ����:���ά���N�S���>~��ŏ~3���?��ӗ��˅��O��~����޸�����7��eYeß�iv�֧y��dOo�����׮��;,�����n��/�_]����ˇWC7���i�GW�C�k=L�������ܩy4�땾H�'WK���������tv^�t��U��j��B�?-�>��+Q���a���>��oeX��5x�J�]�؉6x��Ҧ���Y��LK�U���a� � The whole community faithfully carries out all rites and rituals connected with rites of passage such as birth, puberty, marriage, death and life after death. %�쏢 Ancestors maintain a spiritual connection with their living relatives and generally most of them are good and kind. African women were also directly and indirectly involved in the liberation war. African identity and culture are preserved in African Traditional Religion. The major aim of this book is to present the relevance of culture to Africans in the modern era. �@x�� |S�����ag�t}��N%���8�R{����^�H�_��B�p�:���:;jn:���njp�v������t��:����i���U���L�t����(��em�F�R���^��/�&'n�+����� Faso more than 33 percent follow African religion, although it is not the religion of the majority. <> Religion 20 [1990] contains some articles on the study of African Religions that are worth reading. Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural and passed down from one generation to another through folk tales, songs and festivals, include belief in an amount of higher and lower gods, sometimes including a supreme creator or force, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic and traditional African medic As in most of sub-Saharan Africa, ATR is the indigenous religion … It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society and so on.because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. religious situations, facts and values in Africa as a whole. In the African traditional religions, ancestors were never considered demonic or as part of evil spirits (2007;383). (3�z�����iw���̏�鈶�f�f���@�~n�Ή�ٴM@Tε�����ϴ[51���A�ڑG��0J�:��)_#|_�N�p���e:W��S=�{�����V8��>c���� �}�`��OzU,0�;�˹��L�1�-܂`6��T�6 �8��RЬفJ This is what made scholars such as Mbiti (1969,p.1), Parrinder (1954,p.9) and Mugambi (1995) conclude … John S. Mbiti, in his book Introduction to African Religion (1977: 63-66) argues that, “in African societies sacrifice was very common and that most, involved shedding of blood of a human being or an animal.” He adds that in African societies, life is closely associated with blood. The African life is wrapped in religion. The term ‘ethics’ is technically used by philosophers tomean a philosophical study of morality—morality understood as aset of social rules, principles, norms that guide or are intended toguide the conduct of people in a society, and as beliefs about rightand wrong conduct as well as good or bad character. ��Ǜ�P��\O�;o��!�������MB��N�����2i��^�v��]ۧ��&�&j�v��b��ҥ�K2F�c�w��7��X���D�a���0Y����S�4Џ��&{���+�Ii��n���˯+���B(�z�V �/�ƞo�Ш��Y٠��?U4��OӸ��4����w����Ki��@��,�}\�S��?pИ��qw����p�t�Q����i��'a�E��od\Z~3��-(��ym�8SI+�vV�����QV!ٓI&E %���� Inter-religious relations, especially, among African Traditional Religion (ATR) worshippers, Muslims and Christians are becoming sources of social tension and violence. African Traditional Religion cannot easily be studied by non-Africans. 3 0 obj Examples of such ' The traditional African religions or traditional beliefs and practices of African people are a set of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions. 1 0 obj Mwali Religion. Traditional African religion is a way of life in which ancestors are part and parcel of every major or minor event such as wedding, births and deaths as well as fetching firewood. Whether Africans are part of the modern organized religion today or not, they invoke God in their everyday conversations. They provided food and traditional medicine to the fighters. %PDF-1.4 The effect of colonisation on Africa's traditional religion is seen in the views of colonialists that African traditional religious practices are fetish, barbaric, ritualistic and demonic. It is an accepted position that the African Initiated Churches (AICs) were formed as a result of the search for a unique African identity and culture. As Mbiti (1970) states, it starts before birth and does not end after death. T~E ROLE OF AFRICAN TRADITIONAL LEADERSHIP IN MODERN DEMOCRATIC SOUTH AFRICA: SERVICE PROVISIONING IN RURAL AREAS BY PHUTI SOLOMON MATLOA: STUDENT NO: 204000139 Submitted in Part Fulfilment for the Requirements for the Degree endobj They counteracted various derogatory names given to AIR. This is the popular assumption amongst many African theologians of which Maluleke (1994) is one example. The traditional African understanding and the interpretation of Christianity have deep roots in these fundamental beliefs of the African traditional religions. Arguably, women’s experiences of being in the world and their aspirations to transcend the world of men are reflected in the Mwari religion despite the tendency in earlier studies to deal with the religion … African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religions of the African people. In a nutshell, traditional African religion is part and parcel of culture in Africa. to ' correct the erroneOUS observatiods, notions, assertions and pontifications of some foreign armchair investigators about . <> Furthermore, gender relations within the religious and cultural communities are a reflection of gender relations within broader society. Because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. �y��x��u�S����׋�]�Ɍ���_\f2���u��9��������l'�砑����vC��~�Nj�Ԑ���iG��� ��_�n��!h6�^����?�~p�搥��[�Gž��j�����`=����x)�#m���&S���������/�� �% =���t�ߍ:���]�|J��4���;e��e�6��|�d���8�U��+w?�_5�����:�N�}LZ������%�#mKgy��r`�Wژ��D�.�J�m�# ��6��͓ID��z�.�q��@�Q���WJ�q��.�('��&N�y$��ژ�s���)��ֵ��}z�x{�����~�:-�@z��ȹ|��B` �!�ݚ�Eڂb1�\��Z���ps�����,~�g���{��IQ�.�8��{��pr\Yx�[!��N#��N�����o�&\�Z`�NrTN�Ʉ�����)>Z99��c��u�$���]w��0$���Z���ژnv���'���\yY~$`�����RCE����t"��q���Q��I����K�>���8 Local African culture was oppressed for many years by white South Africans, who find their cultural roots in … Mugambi, 1995). The African traditional These figures represent peo-ple who primarily follow African traditional religion; however, there are also Christians and Muslims who still practice elements of traditional African religion alongside their professed beliefs. Even thoughmorality is the subject matter of ethics, it is most often usedinterchangeably with ‘ethics’. <>>> ��s���33� �/��l�s�D��wc2�iY�pFn�>� During these events usually an offering is made to honour, please and thank the ancestors. endobj 4 0 obj By this label serious damage was done to the gospel in Africa. It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society, and so on. civilization in the traditional days. ^xH&M'�Y۩Z7��E�D�i�%qN^Kː — Njelele Shrine, 35km south of Bulawayo in the Matobo Hills, is the most famous place of pilgrimage and rain dances for the traditional Mwali spirit. �P֫)�k:�J���5��Vw@t2^�a�oz�j"�Nܘ�*����YLyys� [+F���[L|���h�{���g�RB7���y�Z%��u2Y���XgG�{����緯|�ʤ�k2��i��)���@C��4��|L����)zɘB �N�t�� �1�4w�� L[���0�R�˼��w崓���B[e��-�bҊ-�K�3���1��Ȃx�$!j6�H�R��+��.��h(��. stream Religion has played a remarkable role in sustaining such values but with serious challenges stream x�� ] ٓ &,... 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