Black Theology for Cone was theology of, by, and for black people. It sought to apply religious faith by aiding the poor and oppressed through involvement in political and civic affairs. Key Terms. For James Cone, black theology and liberation are inseparable. Oral theology reflects the oral traditions handed down through generations of African people in many African languages found in songs, sermons, teachings, prayers, proverbs, myths, and conversations. Additional important works include Jacquelyn Grant, White Women's Christ and Black Women's Jesus: Feminist Christology and Womanist Response (Atlanta, Ga., 1989); Emilie M. Townes, ed., A Troubling in My Soul: Womanist Perspectives on Evil and Suffering (Maryknoll, N.Y., 1993) and Embracing the Spirit: Womanist Perspectives on Hope, Salvation, and Transformation (Maryknoll, N.Y., 1997); Diana L. Hayes, And Still We Rise: An Introduction to Black Liberation Theology (New York, 1996); Delores S. Williams, Sisters in the Wilderness: The Challenge of Womanist God-Talk (Maryknoll, N.Y., 1995); Kelly Brown Douglas, The Black Christ (Maryknoll, N.Y., 1994); Cheryl J. Sanders, Ministry at the Margins: The Prophetic Mission of Women, Youth, and the Poor (Downers Grove, Ill., 1997); and Cheryl J. Sanders, ed., Living the Intersection: Womanism and Afrocentrism in Theology (Minneapolis, Minn., 1995) and. Jesus Christ revealed himself in the black faces affirming their freedom. I Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Later James Cone examined the spirituals as an expression of the spirit of liberation but dropped the qualifier "all men," affirming their exclusive relevance in Black Theology to black people. Moreover we believe that this orientation, while not the only one, has been the most distinctive, persistent, and valuable part of the religious heritage of African Americans in the United States" (Cone, 2001, p. 147). Black South African theologians created South African Black theology during the late 1960s and early 1970s as a conscious and theological dimension of the liberation struggle against apartheid. The focus is not on abstract thought and logic, but on human experience, including experience of the divine. A second generation of Black Theologians is attempting to meet some of these and other challenges by (1) broadening their reach into the sources, such as slave narratives, African American literature, and other cultural artifacts (see, for instance, Cut Loose Your Stammering Tongue: Black Theology in the Slave Narratives (2003), edited by Dwight N. Hopkins and George C. L. Cummings); (2) widening the scope of Black Theology by engaging in conversation with other third world and liberation theologies; and (3) placing themselves in dialogue with indigenous African religious traditions (see Josiah U. The first of these runs from the beginning of Christianity to ad 1500. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. 2 -Tertullian was a North African theologian and controversialist writing from 196-212.Very little is known of him except from his writings. So far, anyway, they pointed out, it had not done much for African Americans, women and people of the Global South (what was then called the Third World)[in The Journey of Modern Theology… black theology of America and emerging black theologies of Africa. Second-generation efforts to explicate Black Theology and expand its intellectual and social range include Dwight N. Hopkins, Introducing Black Theology of Liberation (Maryknoll, N.Y., 1999), Black Theology USA and South Africa: Politics, Culture, and Liberation (Maryknoll, N.Y., 1989), Down, Up, and Over: Slave Religion and Black Theology (Minneapolis, Minn., 2000), and with George C. L. Cummings, eds., Cut Loose Your Stammering Tongue: Black Theology in the Slave Narratives (Louisville, Ky., 2003); Josiah U. The failure of European American theology to figure in the utter centrality of race fatally compromised its legitimacy and forfeited all pretensions to universality. African theology is Christian theology from the perspective of the African cultural context. The headings are mine; the indented text is from the book. Can Christianity become the vehicle for freedom, or should it be tossed to the dustbin of history with all the other lies and deceptions heaped upon the backs of the oppressed to keep them bent in bondage? One such instructive effort, Black Theology II: Essays on the Formation and Outreach of Contemporary Black Theology (1987), edited by Calvin E. Bruce and William R. Jones, remains a valuable contribution to the ongoing development of the black theological project. The movement came in answer to the fundamental challenge posed by many in the African American community who saw in Christianity the epitome of not only American but also Western spiritual hypocrisy. ii. 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